In the start of century XIX, Usman dan Fodio congregated most of the areas of the north under the control of an Islamic empire having as Sokoto center. The Real Company of Niger was created by the British government in 1886. The Nigria became a British protectorate in 1901, and a colony in 1914. In reply to the growth of the nationalism Nigerian to the end of World War II, the British government initiated a process of transistion of the colony for a government proper with federal base, granting total independence in 1960, becoming it Nigria a federacy of three regions, each one I contend an autonomy parcel. In 1966, two successive blows for different military groups had left the country under a military dictatorship. The blow as leaders had tried to increase the power of the federal government, and had substituted the regional governments for 12 state governments. The ibos, dominant group ethnically in the region east, had declared independence as the Republic of the Biafra in 1967, initiating a bloody civil war that finished with its defeat. In 1975, a pacific blow took Murtala Ramat Mohammed to the power, that promised a return to the civil state.
However, it was died after that, having as successive Olusegun Obasanjo. A new constitution was promulgated in 1977, and elections had been carried through in 1979, being earn for Shehu Shagari. The Nigria returned to the military government in 1983, through a blow that established the Supreme Military Advice as the new regulamentador agency of the country. After 1993 elections, that they had been cancelled by the military government, general Sani Abacha went up to the power. When it died suddenly in 1998, Abdulsalami Abubakar became the leader of the SMC, now known as the Provisory Advice of Regulation. It annulled the suspension of the constitution of 1979 e, in 1999, the Nigria chose Olusegun Obasanjo as president in its first elections in 16 years.